Версия для печати


Kazakh literature is the primary source of epics "Alyp Er Tonga", "Shu Batyr", created in 11-3 centuries BC. Scientific studies have proven that the events described in them are closely related to the ancient history of the Kazakh people. Orkhon-Yenisey written records showed that Turkic tribes art word is poetic force, depth of thought and richness of content. Folklore heritage of Turkish literature is represented by legends, fairy tales, proverbs, poetic and heroic poems. Among imperishable samples of heroic epics of the peoples of the world include "Alpamys", "Kobylandy” favorite in the Kazakh people social and everyday epics –«Kozy Korpesh - Bayan sulu»,«Kyz Zhibek ", the later stories -" Ayman - Sholpan " "Kүlshe-Kyz", "MaKpal Kyz". From folklore written literature abundantly drew ideas, artistic images. In 9-12 centuries with the development of folklore and written literature formed the first concept of the imagery, artistic, educational value of art expression. Dictionary "Divani lugat at-Turk" of Mahmud Kashgar - clear evidence of the cultural level of the Turkic peoples in the 11th century. Despite linguistic, vocabulary and is considered a literary-historical and ethnographic collection. There are several hundred lines of poetry, dozens of proverbs and wise sayings. Dastan "Kutadgu bilig" (didactic work "Blessed knowledge") - a set of wise advice, instruction of Yusuf Khas Hadzhibey Balasaguni, one of the highly Turkish poets and writers. Dastan binds books with oral poetry. Dialogue is combined with the form aitys. Kazakh bard enriched the ancient Turkic writing poetry themes, genres, continued philosophical and didactic traditions have patriotic motifs, signs of a realistic image. The first prominent representatives are Caudan Taishi, Asan Kaigy, Kaztugan zhyrau. Their art reflects the historical events of the period of formation of the Kazakh khanate and the Kazakh people. On the development and flourishing of poetry influenced the work of the special activities and Batyr Shalkiiza Dospambeta zhyrau Tilenshiuly. Shalkiiz enriched Kazakh poetry. These works have found their final form, the basic principles of versification zhyrau that evolved over the centuries. Occupying several centuries in chronological periodization of Kazakh literature, poetry zhyrau often caused discussion and controversy, and only in the late 80th century, 20 years, received a proper assessment. Prominent representatives akyns poetry of the 18th century - Cocteau and Shal. The motif of the works Koktema (1745-1818) - the sorrows and deprivations of the poor. The extant poetichkom heritage akin Shala (1748-1819) raises questions of religion, ethics and morality. The 19th century marks a new stage in the history of Kazakh literature. Its development was due to the work of M.Otemisov, Sh.Zharyngasov, S.Aronov. A great contribution to the development of Kazakh poetry in the 2nd half of the 19th century made akyns B.Kozhagulov (Birzhan sal) A.Naymanbaev, A.Koramsauly (Akan Seri) Zh.Zhabaev. Abai (Ibragim) Kunanbayev (1845-1904) opened a new stage of the Kazakh realistic literature. Power of Abay as the words of a great artist, with exceptional strength manifested in the poem "Octets". The main line of his work - call to goodness, knowledge, culture, honest labor, justice, love for people, his native land. Connoisseur of Russian poetry, Abai translated about 50 works of Pushkin, Lermontov, Krylov. The poet's works were repeatedly published in Russian and other languages. In the 20-ies of 20 century completed the process of becoming prose in Kazakhstan. B.Mailin, M.Auezov, S.Seifullin, I.Zhansugurov, S.Mukanov, S.Sharipov, Zh.Tlepbergenov, G.Musrepov, G.Mustafin, U.Turmanzhanov, E.Bekenov and others. Wrote stories, essays , novels. They found appropriate realistic paint to create colorful human images and characters, images, portraits of characters. Modern literature is developing towards a deep internal disclosure the world of man, truthful, imaginative display it. Since 1933 the Union of Writers of Kazakhstan works section of Russian literature. Novels I.Shuhov "Bitter Line" (1931, in the Kazakh language in 1972, translated by O.Ospanov) "Hatred" (1932; translated by H.Esenzhanov) are significant works of modern literature of the period in the genre of the novel. During the 2nd World War, the story A.A. Bek "Volokolamsk Highway" (1943) created by heroic images B.Momyshuly, I.Panfilov. In the postwar period, published the novel "The Shape of the Sun" I.Shuhov (1950), "starting point" V.D .Vanyushin (1952). N.I. Anov in the novel "Wings of Song" (1959) reflected the social and historical position of Kazakhstan in the 20s in work shows the formation and development of national art, to create an image of talented artists (I.Bayzakov, A.Kashaubaev, K.Munaytpasov, A.V . Zataevich and others). It publishes a novel of I.G. Shchegolikhin "Snowstorm" (1961), the story G.V. Chernogolovina "Not rainy time" novel "Risk Zone" (1981). In the novel, M.D. Simashko "Commissioner Zhangildin" created a vivid image of the son of the Kazakh people. D. Snegin in Novels "In the morning and in the afternoon" (1976, 1982), extending the boundaries of historical themes, created images of heroic personalities, among which occupies a special place O.Zhandosov. The poetry of a new generation of talented poets V.A. Antonov, A.K. Elkov, D.E. Ryabukha, L.V. Skalkovskiy, F.A. Morgun, V.A. Smirnov, M.I. Chistyakov and others. In 1977. Writers' Union of Kazakhstan opened a section of Korean literature. Writer and poet Kim Dun (1900-1980) - author of the poem "Aliya" dedicated to the Kazakh girl Batyr A.Moldagulova (1960, on the corean lang.). Since 1937 in the republican Korean theater audiences saw more than 100 plays of Korean playwrights. In Korean put play "Karagoz" and "Kobylandy", "Kozy Korpesh - Bayan Sulu". German poets and writers successfully operating in the country. Issued poetry of R.Zhakm’en, K.Veltsa, I.Varkentina and prose A.Reymgen, V.Kleyn, D.Golmaa, A.Debolskiy, G.Belger. In 1932, organized by the Uighur section. During this period, it was a success poetry of I.Sattirov, I.Iskanderov, were performed plays of Zh.Asimov, A.Sadirov, K.Hasanov. Published a collection of stories H.Abdullin, Ziya Samadi, Zh.Bosakov, T.Tohtamov, M.Zulpykarov, A.Ashirov, N.Baratov, P.Sabitova and poems I.Bakhtay, M.Hamraev, IA Bahniyazov, Ramzan Kadyrov, A.Ganieva, M.Abdurahmanova. Translated and published in the Uyghur language "Poems" A.Kunanbaev (1987), "Baluan Sholak" of S.Mukanov (1987, trans. of K.Tohtamov) "Ulpan is her name" of G.Musrepov (1987, translation of Ziya Samadi). Famous writers and poets are supported by the state, Dm. Snegin, G.Belger, M.Simashko awarded the Peace Prize and spiritual consent of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The first samples of the fine arts belong to the Paleolithic era. They are found in the mountains of Karatau and Khantau as images of animals carved on the rocks. Rock carvings of the Neolithic and Bronze Age in Bayanaul cave (Pavlodar region), in the Tanbaly (Almaty region) (the images - elk, lion, a hunter with a bow, the ox harnessed to a cart, cow, etc.). And drawings on the rocks of the northern the shores of Lake Balkhash (two men fight with swords, next to which is a girl, and others.) gives an idea of the basic classes, customs, tribes inhabiting the Kazakh land. Sometimes the figure is applied to the surface of the paint like henna. Considered heritage of Andronov culture pottery with geometric patterns, leather, bronze objects with the image of the sun's rays are found during the excavations in the Central, Northern and Western Kazakhstan. Buddha images (many-armed Chon- Rai-Sik Mun-Sak-Buddha, the Manla Buddha), captured in "The iconic rocks" (Almaty region.) In the 2nd century BC, are the best examples of ancient art. The figures reflect the religious beliefs are found in regions of the Altai and Tarbagatai. In the 7th century BC, flourished the art of ancient Sakas, Huns and Uysun. Developing craft, jewelry making, carpet weaving. Products ancient times, household items found in the burial grounds and settlements on the coast of the river Irtysh, Shiderty, Olenty, Silety, Esik, Turgen, Ile and in Central Kazakhstan at the foot of the mountains Bayanaul and Sauyrs reflect the period of the development of art of the nomadic tribes. It was established that the Scythian style images of animals on the territory of Kazakhstan appeared before the Black Sea Gold items found in 1970 in Almaty region near the town of Issyk ("The Golden Man", moose, argali, tiger, horse, leopard), are examples of art the tribes that inhabited the territory of Kazakhstan in 6-5 centuries BC. The ancient art of jewelry with precious stones jewelry products first appeared in period of Huns, Uysun later - at Oguz and Kipchak. In Uysun mainly used techniques carving patterns and inlaid. Since the inception of ancient Turkish art in Kazakhstan has spread sculptural artistry. His samples are divided into two groups: Turkic khanate period (6-8 century), and the period of Kipchak (7-13 century). Most of them are image of a man in a primitive form, some different faces and sharp image shapes. In the 16-18 century, the creation of sculptures made of stone gradually ceased, began to be produced in a variety of tombstones, decorated with patterns and Arabic inscriptions. In the art of the ancient Saks, Huns and Uysun carpets decorated plot drawings, in 5-7 centuries formed the modern Kazakh carpet samples. In 8-12 centuries in the cities of Iasi, Otyrar, Syganak, Taraz, Sairam, Kulan, Merke, Balasagun have developed many types of art. This is evidenced by pottery and vessels for water. Household items decorated with carving, applique and covered with paint of various colors (black, brown, yellow, red); leather and metal enriched national patterns in a diamond or circle. The exterior walls of buildings of architectural, interior and dome were decorated with various patterns, tune appearance of the structure. Like the domed architectural structures in Europe and Asia Kazakh felt yurt combines the best examples of folk arts and crafts from ancient times to the present day. It is decorated inside and out with exquisite, colorful ornaments. The interior is dominated by alasha (carpets), kebezhe (wooden chests). They were distributed embroidered with gold and silk threads, inlay, leather work, jewelry. In the 19th century there were paintings by Russian artists (V.V. Vereshchagin and oth.), Visited Kazakhstan, which displays life and the life of the people. T.G. Shevchenko, sentenced to exile in the Kazakh land in 1847-1857, in a series of drawings truthfully depicted the life of local people. Portraits and figures of the scientist and educator, the first Kazakh artist Sh.Ualikhanov ("Kazakhs of the Great Horde" and others.) Are also made in the mid. of 19th century. During the formation of the Kazakh people as a nation have any specific musical tradition. As a result, it decided its rich musical culture. Ceremonies associated with the birth of a child, wedding, funeral, usually accompanied by singing. A favorite sight of the people became aitys of akyns. Folk music was based mostly on semitonal diatonic major and minor rhythms. Epic zhyry sung recitative. In accordance with the peculiarities of the historical formation of the Kazakh people melodic nature of the music is different, had its own peculiarities and traditions of the executive: the song accompanied by dombra or kobyz, performance and kyuis. Replays wedding songs such as "zhar-zhar", "synau" sung in chorus. The works on thematic and musical features are divided into cosmological (the stars, the sun, the moon, etc. planets), demonological (zhalmauyz kempir, peri, shaitan, etc.), songs, plots, epic, labor, consumer, lyrical, historical songs . In the instrumental pieces of music are depicted war scenes, fights warriors, bayga, flying eagles, howling wolves. There kuishi talented composers. Legendary Cork (8-9 in.), Abu Nasr al-Farabi (870-950) created the first samples of music musical notation. Those who lived in the 15th century and Asan Kaigy Kaztugan are outstanding representatives of Kazakh musical culture of the past. Dance culture of the Kazakh people known since ancient times. Folk Dances "Yormek bi", "Koyan bi", showing the life of hunters, humorous, humorous "Au Bi," "Nasybayshy", "Yorteke", "Karazhora", "Tepekyok" - samples of ancient dance of art. Dance comprehensively reveals the life of the Kazakh people, their love of art. The musical folklore preserved performance on the stage of song, dance, songs accompanied by dance, etc. The people are widespread celebrations to mark the end of labor, and its beginning, other celebrations. On holidays, tois performers entered the contest and showed the audience his dancing skills. The Kazakhs are prevalent pairs dancing girls and horseman ("Koyan-burkit"), rare in other eastern nations. The art of dance passed down from generation to generation, each tribe had its masters. Kazakh folk dances were not canonized species. Most often they are performed in the form of improvisation. At the battle cheerful emotional character combined with choreographic scenes. These features are inherent in the dance "Sylyma." The art of dance on horseback had its peculiarities. Subordinate horse his rhythm can only professionals. Signs of national theatrical art based on ancient folk customs and rituals (betashar, badіk, fever, zhoktau, koshtasu, kyz kade, shіldehana), games (altybakan, kyz oynak, kynamende, yorteke, sudyr-sudyr) aitys akyns and oratory skills. The birth of the Kazakh theatrical art contributed to the opening in Uralsk, Orenburg, Omsk, Russian professional theater. Kazakh cinema emerged after 1917. In the early 20th century in Kazakhstan were 13 private cinemas in major cities (Semipalatinsk, Pavlodar, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Akmola (Astana), Kostanay, Aktobe, etc.). In the city of Verny (Almaty) were movies since 1910. One of the first promoters of the movie was A.Zhangeldin. In 1913 he traveled to Europe and Asia and has brought 40 documentaries about Spain, India, China, and others. In 1925 Mosfilm released their first documentary film studio "Kultkino". Feature and documentary films have won many awards at competitions works of world cinema. Kazakh circus developed in unity with the features of nomadic life. Horse Riding, ability to entertain people through various comic situations, jokes, speeches of baks, sals, traveling the auls - all these phenomena were laid rudiments of circus arts.

In the I half of 2007 in order to implement the provisions of the Law "On culture", and further improving the regulatory framework cultural industries produced 22 sub-decree ("On the procedure of assigning cultural organizations the status of "Academic"," Draft Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Approval of Rules assignment of cultural organizations the status of "National", "On approval of rules of awarding state scholarships in the field of culture, etc.). Developed and approved by the Minister of Culture and Information of Kazakhstan from 01.02.07 № 17 "Rules of issue of the certificate confirming the status of artists". Draft Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Cinematography", which will be submitted to the Government in the fourth quarter of 2007. Particular attention is paid to strengthening the material-technical base of the organization culture. Underwent extensive renovations in the buildings of the State Russian Drama Theater named after Lermontov, Kazakh State Academic Orchestra of Folk Instruments named after Kurmangazy, Kazakh State Philharmonic Society named after Zhambyl. Current repairs carried out at the State Academic Russian Theatre for Children and Youth named after N. Sats. Republican Uighur State Theater of Musical Comedy, Abay Opera House, the National Theatre of Opera and Ballet named after K.Baiseitova. In 2006 it was published 132 titles of books, including 15 volumes of the series "Babalar syozi", 10 volumes of the series "History of Kazakh literature", five volumes of the series "Anthology of Kazakh music", 34 volumes of the series "Library of World Literature", 11 volumes of the series "World philosophical heritage", 5 volumes of the series "World culturological idea "and the" law of the Kazakh ancient world".


Unofficial translation