Kazakhstan model of public consent and nationwide unity of N.A.Nazarbayev
V principles of the model of interethnic consent
I. Ethnic, confessional, cultural,
and linguistic diversity.
II. Creation of all conditions for the development of culture and languages of Kazakhstani ethnic groups.
III. Tolerance and responsibility.
IV. Consolidating role of Kazakh people.
V. Unity of the people of Kazakhstan.
First. Kazakhstan model was built «from below» on the basis of public organizations of ethnic groups, constructive creative interaction of Institutes of civil society, represented by ethno-cultural associations and the state.
Second. All the ethnic groups have equal civil – law and social status. Their representatives act not like national minorities, but are considered as citizens of united people of Kazakhstan holding all the provided legal rights.
Third. Representation of the interests of Kazakhstan ethnic groups are implemented on the highest state level. The Chairman of the Assembly of people of Kazakhstan is the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan himself, guarantor of the Constitution, and this defines the high status of the Assembly. Decisions of the supreme body – annually session – are implemented by the all state bodies.
Forth. Interests of ethnic groups are supplied through guaranteed Assembly’s representation in the Parliament. 9 deputies of Mazhilis, elected from the Assembly, represent its interests as a complex of interests of all ethnic groups in the country.
Fifth. In Kazakhstan model is founded the consolidating principle «Unity – through diversity»/ Purposeful government policy oriented to support ethnic languages and cultures encourages preservation and multiplication of cultural diversity.
Sixth. Interethnic relations in Kazakhstan are fundamentally depoliticized.
Stages of establishment and development of the model of interethnic tolerance
First stage (from 1989 to 1995). This stage is characterized from the beginning of formation of ethno-cultural associations until the beginning of legislative and institutional formation of Kazakhstan model as a result of adopting the Constitution of 1995 and establishment of Assembly of people of Kazakhstan.
Second stage (from 1995 to 2002). The parameters of Kazakhstan identity were defined. On the basis of the Conception of forming the State identity the RK he consolidation of Kazakhstan society around the Kazakh people is provided. The principal Consensus relating the refusal from politicization of ethnic and confessional relations.
Third stage (from 2002 to 2007). This stage includes policy for formulation Kazakhstan model of interethnic tolerance. There was prepared and adopted range of program documents – Strategy of Assembly of people of Kazakhstan till 2011, State program for development and functioning of languages, Concept “Ideological consolidation of society as condition of Kazakhstan progress”. From 2006 to 2008, there was realized Program of improving Kazakhstan model of interethnic and inter-confessional agreement.
Forth stage had started in 2007. This stage is characterized by the as period of integration of Kazakh society into to the united nation, strengthening of national unity of Kazakhstan people and public consent, keeping independence and statehood.
Standards in the sphere of interethnic relations
Unit 1 of Article 1 of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan: “Republic of Kazakhstan proclaims itself as a democratic, secular, legal and social state, where highest values are person, his life, rights and freedom”.
Unit 2 of Article 1 of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan: “The fundamental principles of the Republic are public concord and political stability, economic development for the benefit of all the people, Kazahstan patriotism and resolution of the most important issues of affairs by democratic methods…”.
Unit 1 of Article 3 of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan: “The people shall be the only source of state power”.
Unit 3 of Article 5 of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan: “ Formation and functioning of public associations pursuing the goals or actions directed toward a violent change of the constitutional system, violation of the integrity of the Republic, undermining the security of the state, inciting social, racial, national, religious, class and tribal enmity, as well as formation of unauthorized paramilitary units shall be prohibited”.
Unit 2 of Article 14 of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan: “ No one shall be subject to any discrimination for reasons of origin, social, property status, occupation, sex, race, nationality, language, attitude towards religion, convictions, place of residence or any other circumstances”.
Unit 2 of Article 39 of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan: “ Any actions capable of upsetting interethnic concord shall be deemed unconstitutional”.
The Republic of Kazakhstan had ratified more than 180 fundamental international normative legal acts in the field of interethnic and inter-confessional relations regulation.